A b-PP sample was stretched to necking at room temperature and the morphologies of the deformed material over the necking region were examined with SEM and TEM. Before yielding, the strain was mainly accommodated between horizontal lamellae. Nevertheless, some vertical lamellae were stretched to break when the material approached yielding. At the yield point, many melt spots and deformation bands across vertical lamellae emerged. Some vertical lamellae became highly stretched and their thickness reduced significantly while the neighboring horizontal lamellae rotated towards the loading direction. At the upper shoulder of neck, the melt spots near the poles of spherulites enlarged and elongated in the stress direction, meanwhile, strain-induced crystals appeared in the melt spots. Furthermore, many vertical lamellae were broken into short fragments and some horizontal lamellae were sheared in the loading direction when the adjacent vertical lamellae were stretched heavily. In the tapered section of the neck, the original b-spherulites were shattered due to excessive crazing and deformation bands and some highly drawn material domains were formed. In turn, more shear bands were generated roughly along the loading direction. The horizontal lamella fragments rotated towards the loading direction and fed into the material flow continually. Finally, the lamella–spherulite structure was converted into an oriented fibril structure in the cold drawn material. Based on the observed results the deformation mechanisms of necking and cold drawing were discussed.
Посилання на статтю:
On deformation mechanisms of b-polypropylene 3. Lamella structures after necking and cold drawing / J.X. Li, W.L. Cheung, C.M. Chan // Polymer. – 1999. – N 40. – P. 3641–3656.