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A liquid crystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate)/4-hydroxybenzoic acid (PET/HBA) copolyester forms high-melting crystals (recrystallizes) when annealed in the partially molten state above its nominal melting temperature (d.s.c. peak). The dynamic mechanical moduli increase by one order of magnitude within 3 h. The new melting temperature appears ~20 K above the recrystallization temperature. An additional equatorial WAXS reflection appears at d ~ 3.77 ~ and is typical for a HBA-rich ordered phase. During recrystallization, the long HBA sequences in the copolymer chains are believed to match the unmolten highly ordered HBA crystallites which act as nuclei, and thus, crystal growting is induced. Partial melting provides for the presence of residual highly ordered crystallites and molecular mobility and is a necessary condition for the formation of high-melting crystals. If residual crystallites are eliminated by preheating to a higher temperature, isothermal annealing at the same temperature does not lead to recrystallization. The formation of the high-melting crystals can be thermally reversed by temporarily heating the samples to 300°C for ~ 1 min. This suggests that the observed phenomena are of a physical nature, and if chemical changes did occur, they had no noticeable effect on rheology, WAXS or d.s.c.


A study is presented of the benzene ring orientation in a series of eight films of poly (ethylene terephthalate) drawn at constant width under constant force above the glass transition temperature. For each sample, seven orientation moment averages, Pz'~., for the overall benzene ring distribution were determined from a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopic measurements. Comparison of orientation moment averages calculated with and without the assumption of a uniaxial Raman tensor, and with and without a refractive index correction to the Raman intensities, leads to the conclusion that the seven P~m. are given, to a good approximation, by the simplest calculation assuming a uniaxial Raman tensor and neglecting the refractive index correction. The seven P~,,. were used to calculate the 'most probable' distribution function and the isometric projections of this distribution have been produced. The results indicate that the C~-C4 axis shows an approximately uniaxial overall distribution with a slight tendency to be more oriented out of the plane of the film and that the benzene rings tend to lie in the plane of the film. From a combination of these results with those of earlier X-ray measurements, the amorphous and crystalline contributions to the overall molecular orientation were obtained. The results show that the benzene ring planes are preferentially oriented towards the plane of the film only in the crystalline phase and have an almost uniaxial distribution around the draw direction in the amorphous phase. It has been shown that, in the amorphous phase as well as in the crystalline phase, the benzene rings tend to lie in the plane defined by the draw direction and the C~-C4 axis.


Two phenolic copolymers and a methacrylic acid-methacrylamide copolymer have been synthesized and characterized by known methods. The co-ordinating groups of the respective copolymers form complexes through hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interactions. The unreacted functional groups of the intercopolymer complexes undergo further complex formation with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) and a transition metal ion (e.g. Cu 2 ? ). The different stages in the interactions have been studied by several experimental techniques, e.g. viscometry, potentiometry, conductometry and i.r. and u.v. spectrophotometry. Formation of multicomponent complexes with distinct stoichiometries have been predicted, and some schemes have been suggested to explain the mode of interaction between the components.


The morphology and structure of poly[bis(halophenoxy)phosphazenes] (PBHPP) with F, C1 and Br substituents in the para- or meta-phenoxy positions have been investigated. The size and position of halogen atoms have a significant influence on the thermotropic transition of the polymer. Most PBHPP exhibit polymorphism. Monoclinic and orthorhombic three-dimensional crystalline forms and the location of the two-dimensional mesophase depend upon the chemistry and thermal history of each polymer specimen. Most of the physical properties may be related to the location of the thermotropic transition of the polyphosphazene, which can be expressed as a linear function of the substituent size. Polyphosphazene crystallization behaviour appears to depend upon the position and size of halogen atoms, and the growth of well defined crystals becomes difficult with enhanced side-group size. Surprisingly, thick or bulk specimens of PBHPP comprise globules of comparatively uniform size, which depend upon the sample preparation conditions and the kind of halogen atom present in the side-group. The dimensions of these globules may be increased by heat treatment and with an increase in crystallinity of each polymer specimen. The globules exhibit a bundle-like texture even in drawn PBHPP films.


Conformational changes and chain axis orientation in poly(ethylene terephthalate) due to uniaxial-planar deformation (at constant width) at constant engineering stress in the range 1.2-5.5 MPa at temperatures in the range 85-105°C have been studied by means of infrared spectroscopy. For all samples the state of orientation was frozen just after the deformation reached the equilibrium value at a draw ratio 2p. For a given temperature there are two stress regimes, a lower one where 2p decreases with increasing stress, corresponding to 'stretching with flow', and a higher one where 2p increases with increasing stress, corresponding to 'crystallizing stretching'. It is shown that the crystallinity of the samples is uniquely related to the content of trans conformers and that the overall chain axis orientation may be determined, to a good approximation, by determining the orientation of the trans conformers ; the chain axes associated with 9auche conformers are effectively randomly oriented. Under conditions of 'crystallizing stretching' the content of trans conformers and the chain axis orientation can be understood in terms of a rubber-like network extension if the drawing temperature is between 80°C (the glass transition temperature) and 95°C. At higher temperatures of drawing, relaxation occurs in the amorphous phase. For all samples there is an excellent correlation between the trans concentrations and the overall orientation, independent of whether relaxation or crystallization occurs.


Static and dynamic light scattering studies are presented on the temperature induced sol gel transition of an aqueous system of the non-ionic cellulose derivative ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose in the presence of a cationic surfactant. In dilute solution coil expansion is observed with increasing temperature. In the semidilute range structural changes of the network are found when approaching the sol-gel transition. These effects are explained by an enhanced binding of surfactant to the polymer. The relaxation of the correlation function, in the semidilute regime~ is shifted towards longer times as the gelation threshold is approached. These results are interpreted in the framework of a model that has been constructed with the aid of the theoretical approach of Semenov. In this model the correlation function initially decays by a fast cooperative mode (single exponential ), followed by a non-exponential decay (reptation-like mode) at longer times. The cooperative relaxation time is only slightly influenced by temperature, whereas the reptation-like relaxation time exhibits a drastic increase during the gelation process. This effect is attributed to a slowing down of the motion of the individual chains in the gelation zone. Within the framework of the model the determination of the gel point seems possible.


Naphthalene-type epoxy resin was cured with u.v. irradiation in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) using sulphonium salt as a curing catalyst. In this curing process, the epoxy resin was copolymerized with the THF. Thus, evaporation of THF was sup_p_ressed substantially. The suppression of solvent evaporation decreased shrinkage of the coatings in the curing process and thus reduced internal stress at the interface between the coatings and the adherend. Fracture energy of these cured films increased with the amount of THF added, and had a maximum value when 10 wt% of THF was added. This shows that the toughness of the cured resins increases with the introduction of the flexible chains which were formed by the ring-opening reaction of THF.


This paper presents experimental data on sodium ion activities obtained by two methods in salt-free solutions for four anionic polyelectrolytes in their completely neutralized sodium salt form. Treatment of the data reveals some quantitative disagreement with theoretical predictions although there is considerable qualitative agreement with the main proposition of Manning's counterion condensation theory. A striking disparity between.potentiometric and osmometric results is noted and an explanation is offered.


The structure of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous gels containing borate ions (i.e. PVA-borate gels) was investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The correlation length ~, a measure of the spatial length of concentration fluctuation, was estimated from a generalized Zimm plot for fractals having the fractal dimension of D. The variation of ~ with temperature showed a gel-to-sol transition. The correlation length remained constant in the gel state and decreased steeply with increasing temperature in the sol state. Even at the highest temperature of observation (95°C) ~ was a few times greater than the radius of gyration of the PVA molecules, which indicates presence of PVA clusters in the sol state. The scattered intensity functions for the gels at different temperatures could be superimposed by employing reduced variables, l(q)/c~ 3 and ~q, where c and q are the monomer concentration and the magnitude of the scattering vector, respectively. This indicates that the system is composed of domains of PVA clusters filling the space. The fractal dimension of PVA inside the domain is 2.6 to 2.8. This suggests that PVA chains in the domain are packed more densely than percolation clusters. In the sol state, the system is described as an ensemble of polydisperse clusters of D - 2.2.


Epoxy resins cured with prepolymers of varying molecular weight were studied by high-resolution pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Various phenols and the glycidylethers of bisphenol A characteristic of the prepolymer backbone were observed in the pyrograms of the prepolymers. In addition, pyrolysates characteristic of the curing agents were also observed in cured resin systems. In both cases, the peak intensities changed as a function of the molecular weight of the original prepolymers. The molecular weights of the original prepolymers were calculated from the peak intensities of the characteristic products for the uncured prepolymers and the cured resins


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Хто такий інженер

Інженер - професія нелегка, але одночасно з цим дуже цікава і захоплююча. Адже інженер це людина, у якого народжуються в голові нові ідеї і тому він здатний винаходити.

У багатьох виникає питання: хто такі інженери? Інженер (франц. Ingénieur) - фахівець з вищою технічною освітою. Спочатку інженерами називали людей, які керували військовими машинами. Поняття громадський інженер з'явилося в XVI столітті в Голландії, застосовано до сфери будівництва мостів і доріг, потім інженери з'явилися в Англії, а потім в інших країнах.


Інженер-механік (від лат. Ingenium – талант, обдарованість, і mēchanicus – механік) – це технічний чи технологічний фахівець з вищою освітою, який застосовує отримані знання для конструювання, проектування, моделювання та експлуатації машин, апаратів та технічного обладнання в різних галузях сільського господарства та технічного виробництва. Першими з інженерів були саме механіки; вони розробляли і збирали різноманітні машини і механізми, в яких використовували принципи і закони механіки.

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Хімічне машинобудування багатопрофільна галузь машинобудування, що поєднує в собі природні та експериментальні науки (наприклад, фізика і хімія), разом з науками про життя (наприклад, біологія, мікробіологія та біохімія). Математику та економіку вокористовують для розробки, перетворення, транспортування, управління виробничими процесами, які перетворюють сировину в цінні продукти.

Комп'ютер для інженера

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І хоча відносно недавно, на початку XX століття, комп'ютери були розкішшю і використовувалися лише для самих складних розрахунків, у наш час комп'ютери та комп'ютерна техніка дуже глибоко інтегрувалися у наше життя. Сучасне людство залежить від комп'ютерів, що викликає подиву, якщо розглянути, коли і в яких випадках вони використовуються.

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