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A device to obtain the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of poly(2-propenoyl chloride) (PPC) avoiding any contact with the room moisture is described. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of PPC in THF-d8 solution are thus obtained. The distribution of meso and racemic dyads inferred from the integration of different 1H NMR signals is: (m) ˆ 0.45 and (r) ˆ 0.55.


Gradient structures, produced by interdiffusion in microlayers of a high density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene polymer pair that cocrystallizes isomorphically, were studied experimentally. Microlayers were taken into the melt for a period of time, and the compositional gradient was fixed by crystallization upon quenching. High specific interfacial area of microlayers offset the low diffusion mobility of polymeric chains so that the microlayer in the melt approached compositional homogeneity on a laboratory time scale. Taking advantage of the systematic change of the melting temperature with the blend composition, the compositional gradient was visualized by progressively melting the microlayer with increasing temperature. This made it possible to monitor the kinetics of interdiffusion without using a chemical label. The compositional profiles were analyzed with a diffusion model formulated for a polydisperse system. Diffusion coefficients for lightly branched and linear polyethylene chains, which correlated well with the data of previous studies, were obtained. It was found that the interlayer boundaries remained stationary during a characteristic time of interdiffusion of the component main fractions, and moved at long times as high molecular weight fractions became involved in interdiffusion. The moving boundary phenomenon was investigated with optical and atomic force microscopy and the development of crystalline morphology in the microscopic compositional gradient was described.


pH-sensitive cellulose fibre-supported hydrogels were prepared by ozone-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid using cotton linters and wood pulp fibre substrates. An average amount of grafting of 60% was achieved on to the ozonized wood pulp fibres after only 1 min of graft polymerization. Grafted polyacrylic acid completely covered the cellulose fibre surfaces, as determined with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray mapping of neutralized grafted fibres showed that polyacrylic acid was present not only at the surface but was also homogeneously distributed within the pores of the fibres. Exposure of the grafted fibres to alkali and subsequent drying resulted in a irreversible deformation of the fibre-supported hydrogel. A fibre-supported hydrogel which exhibited a reversible swelling and deswelling was prepared by an addition of a bifunctional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), to the monomer solution used for grafting. Such muscle-like expanding and contraction was also stimulated by pH changes in the environment.


Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx) was blended with the lithium or zinc salt of poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSLi and PSSZn, respectively). Each PEOx/PSSLi blend showed the existence of two glass transition temperatures (T gs). The lower T g value is close to that of PEOx. The upper T g value is substantially lower than that of PSSLi, indicating that the two polymers do interact to a certain extent. The T gs of PSSZn and some PEOx/PSSZn blends could not be detected. A single T g was observed for PEOx/PSSZn blends containing 0.20 and 0.40 mole fraction of PSSZn, and the value is substantially higher than that of PEOx. PEOx/PSSZn blends are considered to be miscible. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements showed that both PSSLi and PSSZn interact with amide carbonyl oxygen atoms of PEOx. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies showed the development of high-binding energy (BE) N1s peaks in all the PEOx/PSSZn blends but not in the PEOx/PSSLi blends. The interaction between Zn 2þ and the carbonyl oxygen atom is so strong that there is an electron migration from the nitrogen atom to Zn 2þ via the carbonyl group. Interaction between PEOx and PSSLi or PSSZn is also evidenced by the development of a low-BE S2p doublet in the blends. However, the Li1s and Zn2p peaks did not show significant changes upon blending the polyelectrolytes with PEOx.


Victrex polyethersulfone was nitrated efficiently and controllably on its deactivated aromatic ring with a mixture of ammonium nitrate and trifluoroacetic anhydride. The products were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy, their thermal properties were investigated by TGA and DSC methods. A comparison is made between this procedure and the analogous nitration of Udel polysulfone.


Monodispersed poly(styrene–maleic anhydride) alternating copolymer (SMA) is synthesized through radical polymerization, and characterized by GPC, DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The mole fraction, x , of styrene in the copolymer is 0.51, determined from integrated 1 H NMR spectrum, this value is consistent with the alternating structure. FT-IR spectra show that maleic anhydride moieties on the backbone chains hydrolyze in a THF solution containing water, and HCl can accelerate the hydrolysis process. Atomic force microscopy reveals that well-arrayed and uniform-sized holes formed in thin SMA films on single crystal silicon wafer substrates spin-cast from the THF solutions containing HCl. HCl can also influence hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic acid groups in the THF solution, which is crucial for the formation of holes in the thin films. The volatilization process in the spin-casting is divided into two stages, THF and water volatilization. The formation of holes is interpreted as the trace of water droplets emulsified by the hydrolyzed SMA in the second stage, i.e. water volatilization. Results also indicate that there are both mobile and bound water populations in the solution, and that the bound water is responsible for the hole or valley pattern of these thin films.


Co-oligomers and copolymers of styrene and methyl methacrylate have been prepared by free radical polymerisation in the presence of the chain transfer agent ethyl-cr-(t-butanethiomethyl)acrylate. Chain transfer constants are not significantly influenced by the co-monomer composition and lie in the range 0.47-0.90. Bulk copolymer composition is independent of the amount of chain transfer agent in the higher MW range ( > 20000). In contrast, the styrene content of lower MW oligomers extracted by fractional precipitation decreases with decreasing MW below about 1000. The efficiency of the addition-fragmentation mechanism in producing specifically end-functionalised co-oligomers (MW < 5000) was investigated by 'H n.m.r. spectroscopy. Spectral peaks are mostly consistent with the expected end groups for all co-monomer feed systems. Quantitative consistency of end group concentrations is also good for co-oligomers with MW > 1500. At lower MWs, there is an increasing deficiency in olefinic end groups and a high ester group concentration relative to that expected from the MW.


In this study, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy experiments were carried out during heating in the a relaxation region of PET. The results for low heating rates were consistent with isothermal measurements. Moreover, the results expressed as a function of temperature were much clearer than those expressed as a function of frequency. However, the loss peaks obtained in these non-isothermal experiments showed a systematic shift on the temperature axis when the heating rate increased. A significant but nearly constant thermal lag was observed in experiments with heating at 1 K min ⫺1 when using different equipment. It appears that isothermal data obtained in a well calibrated apparatus can be used to adjust the temperature axis of dielectric results obtained in ramp temperature experiments.


A range of blends based on 70% by weight of polypropylene (PP) with 30% by weight dispersed phase were produced via melt blending in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The dispersed phase composition was varied from pure Polyamide 6 (PA6) over a range of PA6 : SEBS (poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene]) ratios, using both reactive (maleic anhydride grafted) and non-reactive SEBS elastomers. The two-component PP/30%PA6 blend was unstable towards coalescence during melt processing and consequently exhibited a very coarse morphology and poor mechanical properties. Whereas a three-component PP/15%PA6/15%SEBS blend containing non-reactive SEBS exhibited two dispersed phases; a PA6 phase with a size-scale of 1–5 mm and an SEBS phase with a size-scale of ⱕ 0.5 mm. As a result both tensile and impact properties were much improved compared to the 70/30 blend. The use of reactive SEBS-g-MA resulted in the formation of dispersed phases consisting of PA6 particles encapsulated with SEBS. Varying the fraction of SEBS-g-MA in the dispersed phase allowed a manipulation of the dispersed phase structure, to form either core-shell PA6/SEBS particles or larger, more complex agglomerated PA6/SEBS structures. The core-shell particles resulted in an increase in charpy impact strength of greater than an order of magnitude, compared to the PP matrix, and almost equivalent tensile properties. The larger agglomerated structures also generated very large increases in impact strength, of up to thirty-fold, but only at the expense of significant reductions in tensile modulus and yield stress.


The process of electrostatic fiber formation, or electrospinning, was used to create biocompatible thin films for use in implantable devices. The morphology of the thin films was found to depend on process parameters including solution concentration, applied electric field strength, deposition distance, and deposition time. The microstructure of the coatings was examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS), with electrospun filaments being weakly oriented along the fiber axis. A shish kebab model for the filament morphology was proposed. The electrospinning process was shown to be a means of creating porous thin films with structural gradients and controlled morphology that could enhance biocompatibility.


Корисні статті

Як стати інженером?

Кожна людина в процесі свідомого життя стикається з проблемою вибору професії. Найбільш актуальною ця проблема є для учнів старших класів – випускників, які добровільно або примусово здають шкільні іспити та зовнішнє незалежне оцінювання, за результатами чого приймають участь в конкурсному відборі на навчання у ВНЗ. Щоб обрана професія не стала важким випробовуванням, потрібно ще у шкільні роки зважити всі «за» і «проти», оцінити свої здібності, схильності, можливості.

Хто такий інженер

Інженер - професія нелегка, але одночасно з цим дуже цікава і захоплююча. Адже інженер це людина, у якого народжуються в голові нові ідеї і тому він здатний винаходити.

У багатьох виникає питання: хто такі інженери? Інженер (франц. Ingénieur) - фахівець з вищою технічною освітою. Спочатку інженерами називали людей, які керували військовими машинами. Поняття громадський інженер з'явилося в XVI столітті в Голландії, застосовано до сфери будівництва мостів і доріг, потім інженери з'явилися в Англії, а потім в інших країнах.


Хто такий інженер-конструктор? Даним питанням задаються багато людей, які бажають пов'язати своє життя з цією професією. Варто відзначити, що ця професія однією з найбільш високооплачуваних на сучасному ринку праці, яка характеризується високим попитом з боку роботодавців. Інженер-конструктор машинобудування повинен володіти аналітичним складом розуму, підвищеною уважністю до деталей і відповідальним підходом до роботи. Дана діяльність пов'язана з прорахунками і різноманітним обладнанням. Першокласний інженер-конструктор механік володіє також такими рисами характеру, як раціональність і ерудованість. Важливу роль відіграє стресостійкість, адже робочий процес є досить трудомістким і при потребі замовника вимагає готовності швидко вносити зміни в готові креслення.

Рейтинг вищих навчальних закладів

На даний час в світі існує маса університетів з дуже великою кількістю кваліфікацій, спеціальностей та спеціалізацій. Одні з них більш престижні університети, інші менш.

Рейтинг вищих навчальних закладів переписується щорічно, в зв'язку з тим, що всі прагнуть стати краще в освіті, вдосконалитися в технологіях і підвищити свій рівень акредитації. Рейтинг навчальних закладів варіюється в залежності від предметної області, це природничі науки і математика, техніка/технологія і інформатика, життя і сільськогосподарська наука, клінічна медицина і фармація, соціальні науки.

Що таке КПІ?

На сьогоднішній день багатьох випускників, ще недавно – школярів, цікавить наступне питання – куди поступити, куди піти навчатися? В нашій країні є дуже багато ВНЗ, які пропонують свої послуги з підготовки і навчання студентів. Одним з таких ВНЗ є Київський політехнічний інститут (КПІ).